Plant Flowers that Open at Different Times of the Day

~ Tips for Attracting Pollinators & Wildlife ~


The primrose moth (Schinia florida) is one of the moths that pollinates our native common evening primrose. Photo credit: Jon Yuschock,, cc-by-nc 3.0 

When a flower opens, or at least when it produces nectar, is often timed with when its natural pollinators are active. For example, squash flowers open very early in the day and close by the middle of the day. That is because the native pollinator for squash, pumpkins, and gourds is the squash bee which is active in the early morning hours.

Another example is the common evening primrose whose flowers open in the late afternoon and close by mid-day the following morning. Moths, especially sphinx moths, and a late flying sweat bee are thought to be the primary pollinators of this native wildflower; however, other species of bees and butterflies may visit the flowers when they are open during the day.

Members of the Datura genus, including jimsonweed and moonflower, also bloom in the late evening and are primarily moth pollinated. Angel trumpet (Datura wrightii) is our native species of jimsonweed and multiple other species are sold as landscape plants. However, all members of this genus are extremely toxic so may not be appropriate for planting in many locations.

If you are just starting your pollinator gardens, concentrate on the basics – provide at least 3 things in bloom throughout the growing season and have a variety of flower shapes, sizes, and colors. This will get you started. You can also check out some of my other Tips for Attracting Pollinators & Wildlife for information related to providing overwintering sites, caterpillar host plants, what colors and flower shapes attract different types of pollinators, etc. If you already have a pollinator garden and want to try attracting other types of pollinators, try incorporating plants that bloom at different times of the day.



Shannon Trimboli is a beekeeper, farmer, wildlife biologist, and author. She owns Grassy Roads Farm and Busy Bee Nursery & Consulting. Busy Bee Nursery & Consulting specializes in plants and habitat consulting services for honey bees, native pollinators, and wildlife conservation. In 2018, her first book, Plants Honey Bees Use in the Ohio and Tennessee Valleys, was published. Shannon also writes a weekly blog called Kentucky Pollinators and Backyard Wildlife. The blog features profiles of pollinators and wildlife, tips for attracting pollinators and wildlife, highlights of different plants for pollinators and wildlife, and life on the farm and nursery. You can sign up to have her blog emailed to you.

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